Bio-Mass Energy
Waste to Energy
Bio-Mass Energy

Bio Energy:

India produces a huge quantity of biomass material in its agricultural, agro-industrial, and forestry operations. According to some estimates, over 500 million tonnes of agriculture and agro- industrial residue is generated every year . In addition, electricity can also be generated from biomass grown on wastelands, road and track side plantation etc. The power generation potential from biomass is 1,00,000 MW. There are mainly three technology for productive utilization of biomass are :
Biomass based power generation:: The technology for generation of electricity from biomass material is similar to the conventional coal-based thermal power generation. The biomass is burnt in boilers to generate steam, which drives a turbo alternator for generation of electricity. The equipment required for these projects comprises mainly of boilers, turbines, and grid inter-phasing systems.

Baggasse-based Cogeneration: Cogeneration is the process of using a single fuel to produce more then one from of energy in sequence. A minimum condition for cogeneration is the simultaneous requirement of heat and electricity in favourable ratio, which is well fulfilled in the sugar industry. In cogeneration mode, however, this heat is not wasted and is instead used to meet process heating requirement.

Biomass Gasification: Biomass gasification is thermo-chemical conversion of solid biomass into a combustion gas mixture through a partial combustion route with air supply restricted to less then that theoretically required for combustion. Most commonly available gasifiers use wood/woody biomass; some can use rice husk as well. Gasifiers can be of updraft or downdraft types. Fuel is loaded into the reactor from the top. As the fuel moves down, it is subject to drying and Pyrolysis. Air is injected into the reactor in the oxidation zone, and through the partial combustion of Pyrolysis products and solid biomass, the temperature rises to 1100o C. This help in breaking down heavier hydrocarbon and tars. The clean producer gas can be used for electrical power generation either through dual fuel IC engines.

Biogas: Biogas represents an alternative source of energy, derived mainly from organic wastes. The estimated potential of household biogas plants based on animal waste in India is 12 million. Biogas is a clean fuel produced through anaerobic digestion of a variety of organic wastes: animal, agricultural, domestic, and industrial. Biogas consists of methane, carbon dioxide, and traces of other gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen sulphide. The methane content of biogas is appreciably high, at 60%. This provides a calorific value high enough to find use in many energy applications, including power generation. Fixed-dome type, Floating-drum type, Bag type are biogas plant technology available in the market.
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Last Updated : 23 Mar,2014